Table of Contents

Author’s Note

Introduction: Issues and Directions

Part One: Historical Genesis
Chapter 1: Beyond North Africa: Transmission and Synthesis
Chapter 2: Beyond the Veil: Almoravids and Ghana
Chapter 3: Beyond Desert Trails: Mobility and Settlement
Chapter 4: Beyond Routes and Kingdoms: New Frontiers, Old Heartlands

Part Two: Clerical Emergence
Chapter 5: Beyond Trade and Markets: Community and Vocation
Chapter 6: Beyond Homeland: Religious Formation and Expansion
Chapter 7: Beyond Tribe and Tongue in Futa Jallon: Religion and Ethnicity
Chapter 8: Beyond Consolidation: Rejuvenating the Heritage
Chapter 9: Beyond Confrontation: Crisis and Denouement 
Chapter 10: Beyond Confinement: Mobile Cells and the Clerical Web
Chapter 11: Beyond Consensus: A House Divided

Part Three: Wider Horizons
Chapter 12: Beyond Jihad: Champions and Opponents
Chapter 13: Beyond Politics: Comparative Perspectives
Chapter 14: End of Jihad?: Tradition and Continuity